An extended model of destination image formation: The inclusion of sensory images


  • Bình Nghiêm-Phú School of Economics and Management, University of Hyogo. 8-2-1 Gakuennishimachi, Nishi-ku, Kobe, Hyogo 651- 2197 Japan. E-mail:
  • Awangku Hassanal Bahar Pengiran Bagul Faculty of Business, Economics and Accountancy, Universiti Malaysia Sabah Jalan UMS, 88400, Kota Kinabalu, Sabah, Malaysia. E-mail:



auditory, visual, cognitive, affective, Tohoku, Malaysia


The purpose of this study is to examine the development of destination image from the sensory form to the cognitive and affective forms, and the effects that these three types of destination image can have on tourist intention. Japan’s Tohoku district was selected as the destination, while Malaysia’s respondents were chosen as the potential tourists. This study proved that the model of destination image formation must begin from the sensory images and continue with the cognitive images and the affective image. The linear correlations between the sensory, cognitive and affective elements further facilitate the intention to visit the destination of potential tourists. Among the three, affective image has the largest effect on intention. However, the formation of the affective image is under the influence of the sensory and cognitive images, with that of the former to be larger. Implications for destination image promotion, with an emphasis on the sensory elements, are discussed.




How to Cite

Nghiêm-Phú, B., & Bagul, A. (2020). An extended model of destination image formation: The inclusion of sensory images. European Journal of Tourism Research, 24, 2411.