Examining the effects of personal factors and travel characteristics on tourists’ perceived crowding
Keywords:Perceived crowding, personal factors, travel characteristics, Langkawi Island, partial least squares – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)
This paper investigates the effects of personal factors and travel characteristics on tourists’ perceived crowding of Kilim Geopark, Langkawi Island, Malaysia. There are paucity of studies in the literature to investigate the influencing factors on perceived crowding, including personal factors and travel characteristics. Moreover, we justify, propose and assess both influencing factors and perceived crowding as formative (composite) factors, which has not been a common practice in previous studies. Data for this study was collected during March 2014. To analyze the proposed relationships, this study uses partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results show a significant effect for age, education, and income level on perceived crowding. In addition, the findings support the effects of motivation and travel characteristics on perceived crowding. However, the results of this study do not support the effects of nationality, gender, or destination familiarity on perceived crowding. This study has a number of theoretical and methodological contributions. Moreover, the results can assist Langkawi Island’s local authorities to understand the perceptions of tourists, and increase their satisfaction.
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Copyright (c) 2019 Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International (CC BY 4.0)
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.