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Individual Perceptions of the Value of Leisure: The Influence of
the Social Democratic Welfare State and Leftist Values Systems

Craig Webster1* , Chih-Lun (Alan) Yen2 and Sotiris Hji-Avgoustis3

        
1Ball State University, USA. Department of Management, Whitinger Business Building, room 205, 2000 W. University Ave., Muncie, IN 47306. Phone: 765-285-90220. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
2Ball State University, USA. Department of Management. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
3Ball State University, USA. Department of Management. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
*Corresponding author
   
Abstract
  
In this work, the authors intend to show that a population’s experience with Marxist governance and an individual’s political ideology conditions individual perceptions of the value of leisure. The authors look into the cross-national variations of the perception of the value that individuals place on leisure, using a database with over 84,000 observations from the World Values Survey from 2010-2014. The authors postulate that Marxist leisure values that have permeated societies either via social democratic welfare states or a socialist welfare state experience create expectations for leisure and that the individual’s self-identification on a left/right political spectrum plays a role in influencing perceptions of the importance of leisure. Several individual-level indicators are used, to ensure that individual-level explanations are taken into account. The authors show that placing value upon leisure is influenced by social democratic regimes and a person’s political ideology on a left/right continuum.
 
Keywords: social democracy, liberalism, leisure, public opinion, Marxism
 
CitationWebster, C., Yen, C.-L. & Hji-Avgoustis, S. (2020). Individual Perceptions of the Value of Leisure: The Influence of the Social Democratic Welfare State and Leftist Values Systems. European Journal of Tourism Research 24, 2402
  
 
European Journal of Тourism Research