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Examining the effects of personal factors and travel
characteristics on tourists’ perceived crowding
                                        
    S. Mostafa Rasoolimanesh1*, Mastura Jaafar2 , Azizan Marzuki3
and Bartolomé Deyá Tortella4

   
Received: 09/06/2018 Accepted: 12/11/2018
                  
1School of Hospitality, Tourism, and Events, Taylor’s University, 47500, Subang Jaya, Malaysia, Tel: 006-03-
56295420. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it ; This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
2School of Housing, Building, and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Penang, Malaysia. E-
mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
3School of Housing, Building, and Planning, Universiti Sains Malaysia, 11800, Minden, Penang, Malaysia. E-
mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
4Infrastructure and asset management office, Universiti Malaysia Kelantan, Bachok Campus, Locked Bag No
1, 16300 Bachok, Kelantan, Malaysia. E-mail: This e-mail address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it
*Corresponding author
 
Coordinating editor: Stanislav Ivanov
   
Abstract
      
This paper investigates the effects of personal factors and travel characteristics on tourists’ perceived crowding of Kilim Geopark, Langkawi Island, Malaysia. There are paucity of studies in the literature to investigate the influencing factors on perceived crowding, including personal factors and travel characteristics. Moreover, we justify, propose and assess both influencing factors and perceived crowding as formative (composite) factors, which has not been a common practice in previous studies. Data for this study was collected during March 2014. To analyze the proposed relationships, this study uses partial least squares–structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). The results show a significant effect for age, education, and income level on perceived crowding. In addition, the findings support the effects of motivation and travel characteristics on perceived crowding. However, the results of this study do not support the effects of nationality, gender, or destination familiarity on perceived crowding. This study has a number of theoretical and methodological contributions. Moreover, the results can assist Langkawi Island’s local authorities to understand the perceptions of tourists, and increase their satisfaction.
   

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Keywords: Perceived crowding, personal factors, travel characteristics, Langkawi Island, partial least squares – structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM)

    
Citation: Rasoolimanesh, S. M., M. Jaafar, A. Marzuki and S. Abdullah (2019) Examining the effects of personal factors and travel characteristics on tourists’ perceived crowding. European Journal of Tourism Research 22, pp. 5-19
    
 
European Journal of Š¢ourism Research